By Lauren Lowen
Along with Building the Ivory Tower, Winling has written Mapping Inequality, and collaborated with the University of Richmond on the project Electing the House of Representatives, 1840-2016. A central theme that emerges out of the book is that the federal subsidies helped them to grow. The growth of these universities was necessary, states Winling, as more students attended and applied for higher education as a result of the federal aid they received through the GI Bill after World War II in the 1940s. He shows that the influx of students created difficulties for universities and cities who then had to face issues such as overcrowding and overuse of real estate and infrastructure.
Dustjacket image of Building of the Ivory Tower, edition 1, hard cover.
In the opening chapter Winling shows how one family, the Ball family, effectively created a university. Frank Ball and Edmund Ball started the Ball Brothers Manufacturing Company in Buffalo, New York. Their company produced glass jars that preserved fruits and vegetables during the winter. As their business grew, they invested in and saved the failing teacher training school, and donated it to the state. Winling explains that, “The Balls did not set out to remake Muncie, but the founding of the Normal School helped bring about powerful and wide-ranging shifts in patterns of urban growth and economic development.” 
Circa 1900, First graduating class of Eastern Indiana Normal University. Eastern Indiana was among four failed attempts to establish a college in Muncie, Indiana until the Ball family helped launch a state-assisted public normal school in 1918. (https://magazine.bsu.edu/2018/07/25/new-centennial-book-shows-and-tells-how-ball-state-took-flight/).
The University of Texas shows how racial prejudices influenced universities desires to grow and expand. The University of Texas was fortunate, like other universities, to receive money through the federal government’s education programs. However, they also received money from the discovery of oil in West Texas. This allowed the university to change the spatial organization of the city, and the economy of Austin, Winling states. The institution also had the opportunity to achieve a new elite rank on a national level.
Beaumont, Texas. One of the towns where oil was discovered in Texas in the early 1900s. Image courtesy of The Dolph Briscoe Center for American History at the University of Texas at Austin.
The University of Chicago case study shows how some universities attempted to purchase and change their surrounding neighborhoods. Chicago contained the primary Metallurgical Laboratory used in The Manhattan Project. After the war, the University wanted to increase its influence in Chicago and the nation. As Winling argues, “consolidate its position as a global leader in research for the postwar era.” The university used federal support to create research institutes to house world famous scientists such as Enrico Fermi. The university also funded other projects not involving research, such as university housing, to increase the schools revenue. By choosing to purchase, demolish, and rebuild the communities around the university the school administrators had tremendous influence on the city. As explained by Winling:
The University of Chicago shows how institutions who saw themselves as social agents chose to prioritize their own personal goals over the surrounding communities. They did this in order to compete on a national level with other top institutes of higher education. In this case then shows how an institution of higher education could be an agent of dramatic urban change, like racial inequality.
Veteran Housing on the Midway, 1946. The University dealt with the housing shortage following the WWII by erecting 201 prefabricated units of two and three rooms on the Midway. (https://news.wttw.com/2013/07/24/chicagos-historic-hyde-park)
The University of California at Berkeley was a sleepy suburb before World War II. In the middle of the 20th century, it took on global responsibilities that resulted in more planning, more development, and an effort to revitalize the surrounding areas. The university’s ambitions shows how mass education would take hold in the later part of the twentieth century. However, this shift in education sparked social and political debates throughout the country. Winling argues that “Racial segregation, centralized planning, community participation, and alternative lifestyles were all grounds for debate as students abandoned the mid-century liberal coalition and the center proved unable to hold.”
On the Left: Free Speech Demonstration in Berkeley in the 1960s. (https://www.sfgate.com/bayarea/article/Berserkeley-has-been-that-way-a-long-time-3285736.php).
Finally, Winling focuses on Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Unlike many other cities, Cambridge had a prosperous economy which provided it the unique opportunity to choose its future. In contrast to, “… other cities discussed in this book, Muncie and Chicago, the universities were proportionally too small to counter the massive loss of manufacturing jobs in the second half of the twentieth century.” Winling argues that as a result of this success, working class residents and university leaders, debated the future of the city of Cambridge. The working class wished for the city’s economy to contain their values, whereas the university leaders hoped to attract more students and prosperity to their school by investing in a new technology. The MIT and Harvard who both had different economic visions for Cambridge that favored their own personal values.
Winling’s study offers insights for understanding the relationship of the decision to change the institution’s name from St. Mary’s College to the University of Dayton in 1920. As stated in Larry Schweikart in his book the Voices of UD, “The evolution toward a university continued when, in 1920, the school revised its charter and, in gratitude to the city that had supported it, took the name University of Dayton.”In the 20th century the University of Dayton sought to play an greater role in the surrounding communities. The changing of the name showed how the University of Dayton goals included being a positive agent for the city that surround it.
Portrait of John Patterson. (http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/w/John_H._Patterson).
Between 1959-1979, President Reverend Raymond Roesch of the University of Dayton undertook a massive university expansion program like the University of Chicago. Both universities sought to bolster the university through housing programs that greatly affected the surrounding neighborhoods. Reverend Raymond Roesch, “presided over the largest student enrollment growth in UD’s history, from 3700 in 1959 to 7500 in the late 1960s.” The University built Kettering Lab, Roesch Library, Kennedy Union, Miriam Hall, the University of Dayton Arena, and student housing using money from the federal government. The University of Dayton planned to increase student enrollment through programs like the President’s Commission of Higher Education.
Reverend Roesch also was involved with wider community endeavors to improve the City of Dayton on the institution’s values. President Roesch’s was involved with the Community Development Corporation, and other volunteer organizations, and had a significant role after the race riots of 1966.
On the Left: Portrait of President Raymond Roesch from the Dayton Daily News C0llection, Wright State Univesity Special Collections
 Wingling, LaDale C. “About LaDale C. Wingling.” LaDale C. Winling. Accessed November 01, 2018. https://www.ladalecwinling.com/.
 Winling, LaDale C. Building the Ivory Tower: Universities and Metropolitan Development in the Twentieth Century. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2018. Page 5.
 Ibid, 1.
 Ibid, 13.
 Ibid, 17.
 Ibid, 8.
 Ibid, 15.
 Ibid, 16.
 Ibid, 18.
 Ibid, 33.
 Ibid, 32.
 Ibid, 77.
 Ibid, 45.
 Wills, Matthew. “Origin’s of the Confederate Lost Cause.” JSTOR Daily. July 15, 2015. Accessed November 12, 2018. https://daily.jstor.org/origins-confederate-lost-cause/.
 Winling, LaDale C. Building the Ivory Tower: Universities and Metropolitan Development in the Twentieth Century. Ibid, 64.
 Ibid, 72. Sweatt v. Painter desegregated the Law school of the University of Texas. Since there was no separate option for graduate or professional school, equal or otherwise, Texas was failing the standard set by Plessy v. Ferguson. Sweatt, a postal worker volunteered to apply to the law school, and was not accepted due to his skin color.In June of 1950, The U.S Supreme Court ruled unanimously in favor of Heman Sweatt.
 Ibid, 77.
 Ibid, 79. The Manhattan Project was the World War II operation that was designed to create nuclear weapons to deploy on the Japanese to end the war in the pacific without the need of an on land invasion, the U.S would use these atomic weapons on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
 Ibid, 170.
 Ibid, 150.
 Ibid, 153.
 Ibid, 182.
 Ibid, 154.
 Schweikart, Larry. Voices of UD. Dayton, OH: University of Dayton, 2000. page 1.
 Winling, LaDale C. Buildingof the Ivory Tower: Universities and Metropolitan Development in the Twentieth Century. page 162.
 Schweikart, Larry. Voices of UD. page 50.
 Uhlman, Todd. “”Tonight, We Just Built the UD Arena!”: The Social History of a Building, a University, a City, and a Nation in the Late 1960s.” Accessed December 12, 2018. https://isidore.udayton.edu/access/content/group/ce320de5-9fad-4940-b870-927923857ec7/Readings/Arena History _Draft 7_-1.compressed.pdf. page 16, pdf.
 Schweikart, Larry. Voices of UD. page 61.
 Uhlman, “Tonight, We Just Built the UD Arena!”, page 16.
 The White Flight is a term used to describe the 1950s mass migration of white Americans to areas outside of urban centers. Many moved away from urban centers to ensure their children would not have to go to school with predominantly African American children located in urban areas.
 Uhlman, “Tonight, We Just Built the UD Arena!”, page 24.
 “Research Guides: University of Dayton: 1944-present.” 1944-present – University of Dayton – Research Guides at University of Dayton. Accessed October 16, 2018. http://libguides.udayton.edu/c.php?g=15315&p=82747#s-lg-box-wrapper-277608.
 Uhlman, “Tonight, We Just Built the UD Arena!”, page 25.
 “Over 60 Years of Research Excellence for the Nation and the World.” University of Dayton : University of Dayton, Ohio. November 07, 2018. Accessed December 13, 2018. https://www.udayton.edu/udri/about/history.php.
 Uhlman, “Tonight, We Just Built the UD Arena!”, page 16. page 25.
 Uhlman, “Tonight, We Just Built the UD Arena!”, page 2.